Profile 网络社会年会

第三届网络社会年会-智慧都市网络(IUF)报告人 | 若林干夫:购物中心与旧金山湾区:从东京都出发对当代都市肌理的社会学反思

林干夫(Mikio Wakabayashi)1962年出生于东京。
1986年毕业于东京大学,1988年获得同校的社会学硕士学位,1993年获得社会学博士学位。
其后在筑波大学大学担任助理教授、副教授和教授等职。2005年起,担任早稻田大学教授。2008年起,担任墨西哥大学客座教授。
一直从事城市,媒体,时间和空间社会学研究。在城市和媒介研究领域,对当代城市环境的时空转换感兴趣。

与本次会议相关的出版物有:《购物——城市与社会的商场化》(Shopping- Mallization of City and Society 2013)、《“时空“转换》(Transformations of “Time-and-Space”  2009)、《城市寓言》(Allegory of City  1999)等。

Mikio Wakabayashi

Born in Tokyo in 1962.
After graduated from The University of Tokyo in 1986, I received Master of Sociology in 1988 and PhD (Sociology) in 1993 from The University of Tokyo.
After taking an assistant professor, associate professor and professor of University of Tsukuba, I have been a professor of Waseda University since 2005. I was also a visiting professor of El Colegio de Mexico in 2008.
I have been working on urban studies, media studies, sociology of time and space. In the field of urban studies and media studies I have been interested in the transformation of space and time of contemporary urban environment.
My publications that relate to this international conference, there are Shopping- Mallization of City and Society (2013), Transformations of “Time-and-Space” (2009), Allegory of City (1999) and so on.

购物中心与旧金山湾区:从东京都出发对当代都市肌理的社会学反思
Malls and Bay Area: Sociological Reflections on Contemporary Urban Fabric from Tokyo Metropolitan Area

亨利 · 列斐伏尔的都市理论中,他提出了“城市”(city)和“都市”(urban)的区别(在法语中是“ville”和“urbaine”)。城市社会学经典理论, 如路易斯·沃思(Louis WIrth)的经典理论“都市化作为一种生活方式”(1938)中,“都市(urban)”这个术语是“城市”的形容词化——一个土地,建筑物,人口,社会团体、机构等的复杂组合。与这样的经典理论相对, 列斐伏尔使用术语“urban(都市)”作为一种社会原则, 归因于一个特定的地方或组织,允许人,东西和信息进行运输,相遇和交换。

城市是将“都市”的社会原则与“农业”、“工业”等其他原则联系起来的社会形式。因此,在许多文明中,“城市”一直是治理的隐喻。在城市内部,都市社会原则使各种不同的社区和社会群体能够共存和交流。城市也促进了城市、区域和国家之间的社会、经济、政治和文化交流和交通。“城市”被定义为一个社会、政治、经济和空间单元,并作为一种隐喻,使其能够形象、思考、操纵和管理地方和全球社会成为可能。

通过社会的工业化,都市社会原则、工业社会原则和民族国家之间的联系产生了“工业城市”。然而,这种联系也促进了现代都市化,破坏了城市内部和外部的传统形式和组织。20世纪的社会变迁是“城市”向“都市肌理”转变的背景。此外,20世纪末数字信息网络的传播使得都市肌理向“虚拟”空间的延伸成为可能。今天的都市肌理是真实与虚拟、物理与信息的混合体。

如果我们用“都市网络”而不是“城市”作为治理的隐喻,那么对社会和城市的又能获得哪些新认识呢?为了回答这个问题,我们必须考察当代都市网络的社会-空间结构。我最近的两个研究项目正与此相关。一是对购物中心的研究,二是对东京湾地区社会-空间结构的研究。购物中心是都市网络中模拟传统城市中心区域的节点,它们也被编织到信息网络和交通网络的网络中。此外,虽然购物中心是由私营企业管理的商业设施,但它们作为公共空间发挥了重要作用,与过去农村城镇、郊区和内城的中心一样。在当代都市网络中,“都市”与“工业”、“公”、“共”与“私”、“物质”与“信息”、“经济”与“文化”、“地方”与“全球”汇聚于购物中心,构成社会-空间综合体。

通过对东京湾地区的研究,我们可以了解到作为当代都市空间基础设施的都市网络的宏观结构和层次,如购物中心。虽然东京湾地区毗邻东京市中心,但它是东京都市化进程中的一种“前沿”。这一地区新建成的垃圾填埋场既应对了消费和娱乐的新需求,也应对维持当前都市活动的基础设施,如仓库、能源设施、铁路和高速公路。分析这一地区的社会-空间结构,将有助于理解作为都市网络的东京大都会区的社会和技术基础。

In his urban theory, Henri Lefebvre proposed the distinction between “city” and “urban” (in French “ville” and “urbaine”). Classical theories of urban sociology such as “Urbanism as a Way of Life” (1938) by Louis Wirth used the term “urban” as an adjective describing a characteristic social attribute of the “city” – a complex of land, buildings, populations, social organizations, institutions etc. In contrast to such classical theories, Lefebvre uses the term “urban” as a social principle that goes beyond an attribution to a specific place or group, allowing people, things and information to be transported, encountered and exchanged.

Cities have been social forms that have linked “urban” social principles with other principles such as “agricultural” and “industrial”. Therefore, in many civilization
/s, “cities” have been metaphors for governance. Within cities, urban social principles enable coexistence and communication of various different communities and social groups. Cities also have enabled social, economic, political and cultural exchanges and transport between cities, regions and states. “City” has been defined as a social, political, economic and spatial unit and as a metaphor making it possible to image, think, manipulate and govern local and global society.
Through the industrialization of societies, the connection between urban social principle, industrial social principle, and nation-states produced “industrial cities”. However, this connection also promoted modern urbanization, which destroyed the traditional forms and organizations of cities both internally and externally. This social change through the 20th century is the background of the transformation from “city” to “urban fabric”. Moreover, the dissemination of digital information networks from the end of the 20th century made the extension of the urban fabric into “virtual” space possible. Urban fabric today is a hybrid of the real and the virtual, the physical and the informational.

If we use “urban fabric” instead of “city” as a metaphor for governance, what sort of new understanding about society and cities can be obtained? In order to answer this question, we have to examine the socio-spatial structure of contemporary urban-fabric. As an example of such research, I would like to introduce two recent research projects of mine. One is the research on shopping malls, the other is the research on the socio-spatial structure of the Tokyo Bay area.
Shopping malls are nodes within the urban fabric that simulate traditional urban central areas and they are also woven into the fabric of the information network and transportation network. In addition, although shopping malls are commercial facilities managed by private enterprises, they play an important role as public spaces in the same way as the centers of rural towns, suburban areas and inner-cities used to do. In the contemporary urban fabric, “urban” and “industrial”, “public”, “common” and “private”, “material” and “informational”, “economic” and “cultural”, “local” and “global” converge in shopping malls and make up socio-spatial complexes.

From the research on the Tokyo Bay Area, we can understand macro structures and layers of urban fabric that are functioning as infrastructure of contemporary urban spaces such as shopping malls. Although the Tokyo Bay area is bordering the city center of Tokyo, it is a kind of “frontier” in the urbanization of the city. The newly constructed landfills of this area are spaces that respond to new demands for consumption and entertainment as well as to the infrastructure that maintains today’s urban activities with warehouses, energy facilities, railways and highways. Analyzing the socio-spatial structure of this area would be useful to understand the social and technological bases of Tokyo metropolitan area as an urban fabric.

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