Profile 网络社会年会

第四届网络社会年会-网民21报告人汪凯 | 中文网络中的戏仿文化:一个简史

汪凯,1970年代生,安徽人。2004年毕业于复旦大学新闻学院,获传播学博士学位。2004年至今任教于浙江大学传媒与国际文化学院,现为副教授。为本科生讲授《新闻编辑》与《新闻道德与法规》,为研究生开设《新闻专业主义与传播法》等课程。个人研究方向为媒介社会学、新媒体与文化。

Wang Kai, born in the 1970s in Anhui Province, China. He graduated from the School of Journalism of Fudan University in 2004 with a doctorate in communication. Since 2004, he has taught at the School of Media and International Culture of Zhejiang University and is now an associate professor. He teaches “News Editing” and “News Ethics and Regulations” for undergraduates, and courses such as “Journalism Professionalism and Communication Law” for graduate students. His recent research direction is media sociology, new media and culture.

报告摘要

1990年代末,互联网在中国进入到了民用化阶段,几乎从一开始,网络文化就表现出既不同于官方主导文化、也不同于当时商业化媒体的特征,它们更自由、更具参与性与对话性。在早期的BBS时代,插科打诨的网友们就在对话中制造了许多新鲜的语言与视觉表达。戏仿(parody)文化就是其中之一。2005年,《一个馒头引发的血案》作为一个标志性的事件开启了视频恶搞(KuSo)的狂潮。随后,微博(2009)兴起使得社会对话在更广泛的范围内发生,戏仿文化进一步地扩张。

戏仿的兴盛与特定时代的政治空间的性质与特征有关。事实上,戏谑或者尖刻的幽默往往盛行于刚刚走出较为深重的历史灾难、获得了喘息的机会与一定自由表达空间的社会。在这样的社会中,某些旧有的事物依然强有力的存在于当下,但是它内在的合法性已经被强烈的质疑了。在当代中国的网络空间中,戏仿既经常作为特定事件中进行抗争的情感动员手法,也常常是网民释放社会压抑感的一种表达行为,它体现了威廉斯所定义的对抗霸权的“感觉结构”的特征。同时,戏仿的兴盛也隐隐指向了情感与认知上具有某种一致性的共同体的存在(反讽共同体)。

中文网络中,戏仿文化在2005-2012年前后最为兴盛。随着近年来网络生态的变化,多种支持戏仿活跃的结构性因素发生了改变,它们包括:国家主义意识形态的再度兴起以及它带来的更严酷的舆论管控,更具压迫性的宣传攻势,这种新的国家主义的意识形态也得到了相当一部分年轻网民的呼应,网络民族主义便是其重要表征之一;同时在大型互联网公司的推动下,用户下沉策略使得更大规模的小城镇与乡土社会的人群被纳入到网民中,“土味”文化成为近年来中文互联网中最具活力的因素之一。相对于尖锐的、具有抗争性的戏仿,这种来自更广泛基层民众生活的直接、朴素的表达显然更可能得到主导文化的青睐与收编。

The Parody Culture of Chinese Internet: A Brief History

In the late 1990s, the Internet entered the stage of civil use in China. From the very beginning, the network culture showed different characteristics from the official dominant culture and the commercial media at that time. They were freer, more participatory and involving more conversation. In the early days of the BBS, the netizens interestingly and hilariously created a lot of fresh new language and visual expression in dialogue. Parody culture is one of them. In 2005, as a landmark event, Bloody Case Caused by a Steamed Bun opened a video spoof (KuSo) craze. Subsequently, the rise of Weibo (2009) made social dialogue happen in a wider range, and the parody culture expand further.

The prosperity of parody is related to the nature and characteristics of the political space of a particular era. In fact, banter or sharp humor is often prevalent in a society that has just passed through a deep historical disaster, getting a chance to breathe and express. In such a society, some old things still exist firmly in the present, but its inherent legitimacy has been strongly questioned. In the cyberspace of contemporary China, parody is often used as a method to mobilize emotion in specific events, and is often an expression of the netizens’ release of social oppression. It embodies “the structure of feelings”, defined by Raymond Williams, that confront with the hegemony. At the same time, the prosperity of parody also faintly points to the existence of a community of emotion and cognition (an ironic community). 

In Chinese network, parody culture flourished around 2005-2012. With the changes in the network ecology in recent years, various structural factors that support parody have changed. They include: the resurgence of nationalist ideology and the more rigorous public opinion control it brings, and the more oppressive propaganda. This new nationalist ideology has also been echoed by a considerable number of young netizens, and cyber nationalism is one of its important characterizations. At the same time, driven by large Internet companies, the “user infiltrating strategy”* has involved larger range of people living in small town and local society and turned them into netizens. The “earthy” culture has become one of the most dynamic factors in the Chinese Internet in recent years. Compared to the sharp and rebellious parody, this direct and simple expression of the life from a wider grassroots is obviously more likely to be favored and incorporated by the dominant culture.

* translator’s note: it is a marketing term in Chinese, meaning selling a product which originally targeting at customers who have higher incomes and live in the cities to those who are in the rural villages. This term is usually used in E-commercial field.

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