Profile 网络社会年会

第四届网络社会年会-网民21报告人单小曦 | 新媒介文艺生产“中国现象”及其批判性考察

单小曦,文学博士,杭州师范大学人文学院教授,文艺学学科负责人,国家社科基金重大项目“中国新媒介文艺研究”首席专家。兼任中国中外文艺理论学会新媒介文论学会副会长,中国中外文艺理论学会理事,中国文艺理论学会理事。长期致力于媒介文艺学、网络文学等方面的研究与批评实践。主持国家社科基金重大项目等项目多项。在《文学评论》等刊物发表论文近百篇。出版《媒介与文学——媒介文艺学引论》等学术专著多部。成果获省级社科优秀成果奖二等奖、三等奖等多项。

Shan Xiaoying, Ph.D., professor of the Humanities College of Hangzhou Normal University, Head of the discipline of literature and art, and Chief Expert of the National Social Science Fund Major Project “China New Media Literature and Art Research”. He is also the Vice president of the New Media Literary Theory Association, a branch of China Association of Sino-Foreign Literary & Arts Theories, where Shan is one of the directors. He has long been committed to the research and criticism practice of media literature and network literature. He has presided over several major projects such as the National Social Science Fund. He has published nearly one hundred papers in journals including Literary Review and written many academic monographs such as “Media and Literature – Introduction to Media Literature and Art”. He won the second prize and the third prize of the Provincial Social Science Outstanding Achievement Award.

演讲摘要

中国新媒介文艺比西方晚出40余年,但当前已经形成新媒介文艺“中国现象”。这一现象具体体现为:起步晚发展快;海量生产、天量消费;开拓出了网络时代的新类型化写作;开创了付费阅读与浏览模式;产业化发展产生了世界影响;创造出了新媒介文艺不同形态间跨界联动生产模式;新媒介文艺海外传播如火如荼。新媒介文艺“中国现象”的形成在根本上来自于数字文艺生产力(中国20多年来快速发展的超大规模互联网、移动互联网、数字技术裹挟着的语言符号等生产工具,中国传统文化、通俗文艺遗留下的生产对象,文化市场环境下涌现出的民间写作者及其爆发出的写作能力)的推动。

数字文艺生产力也带来了文艺生产关系的变革:印刷时代文艺生产主体与接受者之间分割而治、身份明晰、等级森严关系,和以此为中心的其他各种生产者之间的旧式关系被打破。数字时代去等级的、去界限、身份模糊的“用户”、“网民”关系及带动的其他生产者之间的新型关系形成。在制约新媒介文艺生产的物质和政治力量方面,中国既存在着西方“数字资本主义”式的结构性问题,也存在着不同于西方的特殊性政治干预;既存在着资本、权力对“网民”新等级关系和审美消费的制造与控制,也存在着两者间的共谋和对抗的复杂扭结关系,而其审美意义也在诸多张力结构间曲折生成。

A Critical Review on The “Chinese phenomenon” of New Media Literary Production 

China’s new media literature and art emerge 40 years later than the West, but the new Chinese literature and art and  “Chinese phenomenon” have already been formed. This phenomenon represents as: rapid development at a late start; mass production and huge consumption; opening up new types of writing in the Internet age; creating a paid reading and browsing model; industrialization that brings world influence; creating new cross-border linkage production mode of different forms of media literature and art. The new media literature and art overseas communication is in full swing. The formation of the new media literary “Chinese phenomenon” is fundamentally derived from the digital literary and productive forces (the production tools such as the ultra-large-scale Internet, mobile Internet, and digital technology that are rapidly developed in China in the past 20 years, and the legacy of Chinese traditional culture and popular literature and art, and the folk writers emeging in the cultural market environment and their writing abilities). 

Digital literary productivity has also brought about a revolution in the relation of production of art and literature: the the division and governance between producers and the recipients in the printing era, the hierarchical relationship, break down. New “users”, “netizens” and related producers create a new relationship beyond rank, boundary and identity. In terms of the material and political power restricting new media literary production, China has not only the structural problems of Western “digital capitalism”, but the special political interference different from the West. There are capital and power that produce and contol the new “netizen” class; there are also the complicated relation of confrontation and collusion between them. The aesthetic meanings are also generated under the strain.

X