Born 1980 in Tokyo, Japan. Critic and commentator. Also worked as a marketing researcher on network society and netizens for over 10 years. Author of the Ecosystem of Architecture (2008), in addition to numerous books/magazines including articles about network society in the Japanese language.
截至2019年，社交媒体市场被国际上的大型平台公司如（GAFA，Twitter等）所主导。 智能手机的普及是一决定性因素，这是因为当每个人都使用相同的设备并下载、安装相同的应用程序时，经济学中的“网络外部性”就扮演了重要角色。 现在的社交媒体是一个具有强大营销能力的巨型大数据基础架构，其产业形式与铁路和能源等传统网络行业并没有差异。
我所聚焦的是在此之前的互联网。 特别是在日本，正如日本人用自己的商业术语“加拉帕戈斯化”所指称的一样，它与以谷歌和博客为中心的Web 2.0完全不同，而是形成了一种独特的生态系统。 我想探究社交媒体政治经济学批判的机会，一种也许曾经可行的社交媒体，所以我将聚焦于两种网络服务，它们都生发于日本，并已在日本大规模发展，然后引领了类似的海外服务的诞生。
第一类：从2chan到4chan。2chan是一个诞生于1999年的匿名的网络公告板。2chan有属于自己的通讯系统“线程浮动”，其设计旨在把那些无聊的话题挑选出来并使其消失，只有新鲜有趣的话题（尤其是激起强烈情感的）始终出现在公告板的前面。 匿名性促进了一种文化，这种文化忽略了创作者的版权，复制粘贴有趣的内容，并逐步对其进行修改和扩展。 在这种环境中容易长出所谓的“模因”（Richard Dawkins）。
第二类：从niconico到哔哩哔哩。这项服务诞生于2007年，是类似于YouTube和2chan的组合（实际上，它在操作系统上也是如此）。 通常在YouTube之类的视频网站上，视频内容和评论区域是分开的。 但是在niconico动画中，视频评论会滚动并同步显示在视频播放屏幕上，通常将其称为“弹幕”。 这使用户有与其他用户实时同步观看视频的感觉。 这种机制被称为“伪同步”，这也有助于将“灵韵”（瓦尔特·本雅明）赋予虚拟明星人声“ 初音未来”中。
当这些服务出现的时候，我就在想为什么这类如此独特的UI/UX设计服务会生发在日本。我在《架构的生态系》一书中也总结了这样的猜想。 之后，随着社交媒体国际广泛性的传播和水平的提高，2chan和niconico在日本不再具有过去的影响力，但现在我对未来很感兴趣。未来会不会有一个颠覆传统、完全不同于现有平台的模式（不仅生发于日本而且也生发于中国这样的大国）？2020年之后，后智能手机时代可能会到来。 我并不知道它是可穿戴的智能扬声器还是xR（VR，AR，MR）这样的新型设备。 我也在猜想，未来是否会出现一种可以撼动现有平台行业的现象？
As of 2019, the social media market is dominated by huge platform companies internationally (GAFA, Twitter, and so on). The spread of smartphones has made the situation decisive. This is because the “network externality” of economists plays a big role when everyone uses the same device and downloads and installs the same apps. Social media is now a huge big data infrastructure with great marketing capabilities, and its industrial form is no different from traditional network industries such as railways and energy.
What I want to focus on is the Internet before this happened. In particular, in Japan, as the Japanese themselves called “galapagosization” in business jargon, a unique ecosystem was developed that was completely different from Web 2.0 centered on Google and Blog. I would like to see the opportunity of Political Economy Criticism of Social Media, an alternative Social Media that might have been possible. So I will focus on two network services. Both are born in Japan, have grown at a mass level in Japan, and led to the birth of similar overseas services.
i. 2chan (2channel, 2ちゃんねる) >>> 4chan, Anonymous. 2chan is an anonymous bulletin board born in 1999. With its own communication system called thread-float, 2chan was designed so that boring topics were selected and disappeared, and only fresh and interesting topics (especially flames) were always on the front. Anonymity fostered a culture that ignored the creators’ copyrights, copied and pasted the interesting ones, and gradually modified and expanded them. This is an environment where so-called “memes” (Richard Dawkins) are easy to breed.
ii. niconico douga (ニコニコ動画) >>> bilibili (哔哩哔哩). This is a service that was born in 2007 and is a combination of YouTube and 2chan (actually it was operated in that way on the system as well). Usually, on video sites like YouTube, the video content and comment display areas are separated. However, in niconico douga, as it is commonly called “barrage”, comments on the video are scrolled and displayed on the video playback screen. This gives you the feeling of watching the video in sync with other users in real-time. This mechanism, which I named “pseudo-synchronization”, contributed to giving “Aura” (Walter Benjamin) to a virtual star-like Vocaloid “Hatsune Miku”.
When these services appeared, I was wondering why such unique UI / UX design services were born in Japan. My book Ecosysytem of Architecture summed up the discussion. Later, with the international spread and leveling of social media, in Japan, 2chan and niconico no longer have the same influence as before, but now I am interested in the future. Will there be an evolutionary path different from these existing platforms (not only from Japan but from a major power like China)? After 2020, the post-smartphone era will probably come. I don’t know if it is a wearable, smart speaker, or xR (VR, AR, MR) device. Will there be a phenomenon that will shake the current platform industry?